Random questions I’d written for Minn Open
by Gilbert Keith
I want to get rid of files from various folders, and here is one of the files that fits the bill. I’d used it to write some questions for Minnesota Open 2009. There are a lot of questions, so I’ll only be posting an excerpt on homepage; you’ll have to click on the post to see all the questions in this post. The starring was kind of a difficulty scale, but I didn’t use it frequently enough. As usual, comments are welcome.
Chemistry – 4/2
***Pausacker proposed a mechanism for this reaction that proceeds via radical intermediates which differs from the commonly accepted Robinson mechanism for this reaction. Stephen Buchwald’s modification of this reaction uses aryl halides as reagents and employs a BINAP/palladium catalyst. The final step of this reaction is the elimination of a nitrogen atom in the form of ammonia after the aniline nitrogen attacks the imine group to form a new ring structure. This reaction uses a phenylhydrazine and an aldehyde or a ketone as its reagent, and proceeds via an (*) arylhydrazone intermediate which is followed by a [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangement. For 10 points, identify this reaction developed by a German chemist that produces derivatives of a molecule consisting of a benzene ring fused to a pyrrole ring.
ANSWER: Fischer Indole Synthesis
**This compound can be synthesized from halogenated alpha carbonyl compounds and beta-keto esters in basic conditions, and the “interrupted” form of that reaction produces a diol derivative of this compound. Additionally, this compound can be produced from 1,4-diketones under the presence of an acid catalyst, while its sulfur and nitrogen analogues can also be synthesized using that reaction in the presence of phosphorus pentasulfide and primary amines. In addition to being synthesized in the Feist-Benary reaction and the Paal-Knorr synthesis, the fully reduced form of this compound is used as a (*) solvent for hydroboration reactions. The aforementioned analogues of this compound are thiophenes and pyrroles. This compound’s oxygen atom lies on the same plane as the ring, and the lone-pair of electrons on the oxygen atom contribute to the 6 pi electrons, which makes it aromatic. For 10 points, identify this compound, a cyclic ether with formula C4H4O.
**This quantity is multiplied by the dielectric constant times the inverse of viscosity times a constant which is either approximated to be 1 or 1.5 to give the electrophoretic mobility of a system. Those approximations used in the aforementioned Henry equation depend on the size of the particle in consideration and are named for Smulchowski and Huckel, and this quantity is calculated at the surface of (*) hydrodynamic shear. Though it’s not charge, this quantity is also equal to zero at the isoelectric point of a system. Low values for this quantity result in the flocculation of the system, and it is equal to the difference between the potential at the interfacial double layer and the dispersion medium. For 10 points, identify this quantity, a type of potential which describes the stability of a colloid.
ANSWER: zeta potential
Symmetric bridged metallocenes which have ansa-indenyl functionalities enhance one of the characteristic activities of these. Magnesium hydroxide and magnesium chloride can be used to “support” these, and Walter Kaminsky discovered metallocenes which act as highly reactive variants of these. Their reactions proceed via a metal-carbene intermediate in the Green-Rooney mechanism, while a metal-alkyl intermediate is hypothesized by the Cossee-Arlman mechanism. The use of these allows for the generation of structures which exhibit low branching, such as high density polyethylene, as opposed to the highly branched products obtained from free radical polymerization. Including a diethyl aluminium chloride and an alpha-titanium trichloride complex, which reacts with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds, for 10 points, identify these catalytic systems which produce ordered polymers, named for a German and an Italian.
ANSWER: Ziegler–Natta catalysts
*One modification of this equation, which takes into account the difference in electronegativity, was developed by Haasnoot, De Leeuw, and Altona. For 10 points each:
 Identify this relation which gives the 3J coupling constant as a function of the dihedral angle between vicinal atoms.
ANSWER: Karplus equation
 The aforementioned coupling constant is useful in interpreting spectra obtained by this technique, which notably comes in proton and Carbon-13 variants.
ANSWER: NMR [or Nuclear Magnetic Resonance]
 Signal broadening due to chemical shift anisotropy can be eliminated via this technique, commonly applied in solid-state NMR, which involves placing the sample at a namesake orientation.
ANSWER: magic angle spinning
***The most commonly encountered reaction from this paradigm is the benzoin condensation, and Dieter Seebach is known for introducing the term for these reactions. For 10 points each:
 Identify this term which describes a general class of reactions wherein the polarity of a functional group is reversed.
 Seebach notably worked with this American on umpolung reactions. This badass is known for his pioneering work in retrosynthetic analysis, and he names a reaction which converts aldehydes to alkynes along with Philip Fuchs.
ANSWER: Elias James Corey
 In the Corey-Fuchs, this compound reacts with carbon tetrabromide to create a ylide intermediate, after which the reaction proceeds in a Wittig-like fashion. This compound, along with DEAD, participates in the synthesis of an ester from an alcohol and a carboxylic acid in the Mitsunobu reaction.
ANSWER: triphenylphosphine [or PPh3]
**This man developed the theory that depressions can be caused during times of excess debt when rapid liquidation of assets motivated by shocks in market results in a deflationary spiral. He also introduced the briefly implemented currency which was designed to have a constant buying power for several commodities, called the “commodity dollar.” He developed the equation stating that the (*) price level times level of transactions is equal to the quantity of money times the money supply. Along with Simon Newcomb, he revived the quantity theory of money. He also hypothesized that the nominal interest rate on a financial asset adjusts to reflect the expectations of inflation, which implies that real interest rates remain nearly constant. For 10 points, name this economist whose equation relates real interest rates and inflation, who also wrote the treatise The
Theory of Interest.
ANSWER: Irving Fisher
**Identify the following from the world of finance, for 10 points each.
 Fischer Black worked with this man to develop a stochastic model used to price options.
ANSWER: Myron Scholes
 This quantity describes the correlation between the value of a stock and the overall market trend, and thus describes the volatility of a stock as well.
ANSWER: beta coefficient
 Developed by Sharpe and Lintner, this model proposes that the return on a portfolio must be the sum of the return on a risk free security plus the beta of the portfolio times the market premium.
ANSWER: Capital Asset Pricing Model [or CAPM]
***Along with Richard Thaler, this man recently co-authored the book Nudge, and he was named the “Regulatory Czar” by the Obama administration. For 10 points each:
 Identify this Harvard Law School professor who also authored Infotopia, wherein he analyzed the nature of collaborative projects on the internet such as wikis.
ANSWER: Cass Sunstein
 Cass Sunstein collaborated with David Schadke and this behavioral economist on the paper “Shared Outrage and Erratic Awards: The Psychology of Punitive Damages.” This man is better known for his development of prospect theory along with Amos Tversky.
ANSWER: Daniel Kahneman
 This other behavioral economist coined the term “satisficing,” and also proposed that because economic agents don’t have the full resources to evaluate economic decisions, they act in a “boundedly rational” manner.
ANSWER: Herbert Simon– 3/7
*One gene which is commonly implicated in the early-onset form of this disease forms a complex with Nicastrin, Aph-I and Pen-2 called the Gamma Secretase complex. In addition to the PS1 and PS2 proteins, an aspartyl protease implicated in this disease called BACE and the similarly named enzyme TACE are considered potential drug targets for slowing the progression of this disease. Treatments for this disease include the NMDA receptor antagonist called memantine, while earlier treatments for it include (*) cholinesterase inhibitors. A 40-peptide fragment central to this disease has E22Q and E22G mutations called the Arctic and Dutch variants, and those fragments of the APP protein form plaques which accumulate in the cerebral cortex, along with fibrillary tangles of the Tau protein. Beta-amyloid plaques occur in, for 10 points, which neurodegenerative disease named for a German neurologist.
ANSWER: Alzheimer‘s Disease
**One disease of this type sees the formation of curved structures called “banana bodies,” while one example of this type of diseases is treated by the drug miglustat. Another disease of this type sees the generalized occurrence of lesions called angiokeratomas and is alternatively called angiokeratoma corporis diffusum. In addition to Farber’s disease and Fabry’s disease, patients suffering from these diseases commonly exhibit (*) hepatomegaly or splenomegaly. The most prominent examples of these diseases include ones in which the activities of L-iduronidases are impaired, exemplified by the Hurler syndrome and the Scheie syndrome, as well as Gaucher’s disease, which sees improper functioning of beta-glucosidase. For 10 points, identify this class of diseases, wherein macromolecules get accumulated in a certain organelle, whose other examples include the Tay-Sachs disease.
ANSWER: lysosomal storage diseases [accept equivalents; prompt on “diseases involving mutations of hydrolases”]
*In plants, the first dedicated step for the biosynthesis of this compound sees the synthesis of dihydro-picolinate, while the catabolism of this compound proceeds via sacchropine. Synthetic analogue of this compounds include tranexamic acid and EACA, which are used to inhibit the fibrinolytic activity of plasmin. This amino is acid is found at residues 48 and 63 in (*) ubiqutin, and successive molecules of ubiquitin are added on to those residues of this amino acid. Enzymes such as ALA synthase and aldolase contain a residue of this molecule at their active sites, wherein their epsilon amino groups form Schiff base linkages with cofactors or substrates. Along with arginine and histidine, it is basic amino acid. For 10 points, identify this amino acid symbolized by the letter K.
ANSWER: lysine [or lys; accept K until mentioned]
**The Drosophila variants of this protein interact with R2D2 and Loquacious, both of which have dsRBP domains. For 10 points each:
 Identify this protein, whose RNAse III domain typically yields 20-25 base-pair long dsRNA fragments with two nucleotide 3′ overhangs.
 The short RNA fragments produced by Dicer then undergo duplex unwinding after which the PAZ domain of this other protein binds the antisense strand. The Piwi domain of this family of proteins cleaves mRNAs in RNA interference.
ANSWER: Argonaute protein
 The Argonaute proteins of this widely used model organism are called AGO. This plant is useful because it can be easily infected by agrobacterium tumefaciens, and it releases a lot of seeds.
thaliana [or A. thaliana]
**The enzyme HMG CoA reductase converts HMG CoA to this compound. For 10 points each:
 Some insects have terpenoid biosynthesis pathways which do not proceed via this intermediate, whose formation is the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis.
ANSWER: mevalonic acid [or mevalonate]
 This class of drugs inhibits HMG CoA reductase, and causes a reduction in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides as they increase the activity of LDL receptors.
 Another class of anti-cholesterol drugs inhibit the enzyme which catalyzes the formation of this molecule by the condensation of two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate.
**The addition of this structure sees the condensation of a GTP with the gamma phosphate of an end nucleotide, which is then methylated at its 7 position. For 10 points each:
 Identify this structure, wherein a 7-methyl guanosine has a 5′-5′ linkage with certain end nucleotide. In some organisms, the two nucleotides upstream of it are methylated at the 2′ hydroxyl group.
ANSWER: 5′ cap of mRNA [accept equivalents; accept m7GpppN(m); I need the “5′” part, so don’t just accept “cap” because 5′ is mentioned in the question]
 This sequence of about 200-250 repeats of the same nucleotide is found at the 3′ end of mRNA. The proteins bound to it prevent the cleavage of mRNA by 3′-5′ exonucleases.
ANSWER: 3′ poly (A) tail
 This other post-transcriptional modification sees the removal of non-coding introns via a lariat like structure. It is catalyzed by a complex of U2, U5, U6 ribonucleoproteins called Snurps.
ANSWER: mRNA splicing [accept equivalents mentioning “splice”]
**In platelets, these enzymes catalyze the production of TxA2. For 10 points each:
 Identify these enzymes whose characteristic activity sees the addition of two oxygen molecules to molecules of arachidonic acid.
ANSWER: cyclooxyganses [accept “COX,” “COX-1,” or “COX-2” as well]
 These compounds are produced from cyclooxygenases and are best known for their role in pain-signaling. They were first discovered by Ulf von Euler in semen.
 This class of compounds, including aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen, are known for relieving pain by inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity.
ANSWER: NSAID [or Non–Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs; prompt on “anti-inflammatory drugs”]
**The most deadly property of this glycoprotein is its ability to bind to sialic acid receptors, which enables a virus to adhere to a host cell. For 10 points each:
 Name this glycoprotein found on influenza viruses which has a characteristic ability to clump together red blood cells. Influenza strains are named after the variant of this protein and the neuraminidase variant found on the viral surface.
ANSWER: hemagglutinin [prompt on H; accept HA]
 Several isolates of the H1N1 virus have shown resistance to this class of drugs which inhibit the activity of the M2 ion transporter on the viral coat. The simplest amino derivative of this compound is also used to treat Parkinson’s.
ANSWER: adamantanes [grudgingly accept amantadine or rimantadine]
 Two currently available drugs to treat H1N1 are these neuraminidase inhibitors which are marketed by Roche and GlaxoSmithKline. Name either of these drugs, which are currently being stockpiled by governments worldwide.
ANSWER: tamiflu or relenza [accept oseltamivir or zanamivir]
**In honor of a fruit much consumed by the Kandlikar household in India, identify the following things from biology, for 10 points each.
 Identify this cysteine protease found in a namesake tropical fruit, which can cause the cleavage of antibodies into two Fab and one Fc domains.
 This process, mediated by RS sequences and facilitated by RAG genes, is necessary to achieve the variety in immunoglobulins and T-Cell receptors. It should not be confused with the antigen-dependent somatic hypermutation.
ANSWER: V(D)J recombination
 T-cells mature in this organ, located behind the sternum. Patients suffering from Myasthenia Gravis sometimes suffer from tumors of this organ.
**Matt Weiner’s deep knowledge of Kosher law will surely come handy in identifying this nerve. For 10 points each:
 Identify this largest nerve in the human body, which originates at the sacral plexus. Its terminal branches give rise to the tibial and common peroneal nerves, while its articular branch supplies the hip joint.
ANSWER: sciatic nerve [or ischiatic nerve; do not accept sciatica]
 Sciatica may sometimes be caused by the buildup of Tarlov cysts, wherein this substance gets accumulated. It is produced from blood in the choroid plexuses of the lateral ventricles of the brain.
ANSWER: cerebrospinal fluid [or CSF]
 “Wallet sciatica” can be caused when the proximal sciatic nerve is compressed by this muscle of the butt. This muscle inserts into the superior surface of the femur’s greater trochanter, and passes through the sciatic formaen after originating at the anterior surface of the sacrum.
ANSWER: piriformis muscle – 8/3
**One character in this work constantly runs for local elections but always receives only three votes, and spells the word “School” with his cane in an encounter with the narrator. One character is arrested for stealing furniture which he remodels to impress his wife Emelda, while another character refuses to admit to being beaten by his father George. Yet another character in this work aspires to be like a namesake American actor, but ends up impregnating a Caroni girl and is named Bogart. This work features Mr. Titus Hoyt, who meets the narrator who is lost finding his house in the title location as well as the untalented poet B. Wordsworth in addition to Man-Man, Mr. Popo and Elias. The protagonist plays cricket at the title location with Boyee and Errol, and receives several parting gifts as he leaves his slum in Port of Spain to pursue a higher education. For 10 points, identify this semi-autobiographical novel about people who live on the title roadway, written by V. S. Naipaul.
ANSWER: Miguel Street
**The protagonist of his first novel is a resident of the Khodadad building, who gets used by his friend Jimmy Bilmoria to fund guerilla rebels trained by the Research and Analysis Wing. The title of location of one of his story collections is home to Daulat Mirza, who ends up selling the headdress of her dead husband, and another character who is confused by the idea that he doesn’t need to squat to shit in a Western commode. That collection by this author includes stories such as “Condolence Visit” and “The Squatter,” in addition to “Swimming Lessons.” The most famous novel by this author describes several young men committing (*) suicide in front of train tracks as observed by the tailors Ishvar and Omprakash during Indira Gandhi’s period of “Emergency.” For 10 points, identify this Indian born Canadian author of Such a Long Journey, Tales from Firozsha Baag, and A Fine Balance.
ANSWER: Rohinton Mistry
**In one scene, this character dreams of Ushikawa as a dog with grotesquely large testicles. This character traces the beginning of his miseries to a night he spent in a bar at Sapporo, and a girl who befriends certain “duck people” at a wig-factory writes 6 letters addressed to this character. He visits a psychic who frequently narrates the story of the Soviet invasion of Namanho, and that psychic give this character an empty box of Cutty Sark in a scene where Lieutenant (*) Mamiya relates his experiences with Mr. Honda. This character meets a woman who buys him a house once owned by the Miyawakis, and that woman has a son named Cinnamon Akasaka. He uses a well to gain access to a Room 208, and towards the end of the work he appears in, he beats a man to death, which causes his brother in law to have a stroke. Early in this novel, he is in search of his cat Noboru Wataya, and later on he struggles to find his wife Kumiko as he hears the voice of a mechanical avian. For 10 points, identify this protagonist of The Wind-up Bird Chronicle.
Okada [reluctantly accept Mr. Wind-up Bird]
*The speaker of this poem admits that he “too knitted the old knot of contrariety” and “was wayward, vain, greedy, shallow, sly, cowardly, malignant.” The speaker twice notes that neither time nor distance “avail not,” before earlier describing himself as a part of a “simple, compact, well-join’d scheme.” The image of a “motionless” and “oscillating” seagull recurs in this poem, and the speaker also sees “centrifugal spokes of light round the shape of my head in the sunlit (*) water.” This poem was originally titled “Sun-Down Poem” and it claims that posterity will “enjoy the sunset, the pouring in of the flood-tide, the falling back to the sea of the ebb-tide,” as they embark on the titular journey. For 10 points, identify this poem which describes a ride between Manhattan and a namesake New York borough, written by Walt Whitman.
ANSWER: “Crossing Brooklyn Ferry“
**One character in this work drinks a prescription every 4th of July, and is outraged at the fictitious comments attributed to the narrator regarding a horrible kimono. Perhaps much like Jerry Vinokurov, one character in this work is outraged when he hears that someone wants his beard cut, and that character claims that his influence got the narrator a job at the “Bird’s Nest.” The narrator of this work (*) packs up her possessions, including an electric fan and a radio, after a box of firecrackers are set off in her bedroom. Reasons for the titular condition include the fact Papa-Daddy, Mama, and Uncle Rondo believe that Shirley T. is Stella-Rondo’s adopted child, and those characters repeatedly insult the narrator. For 10 points, name this short story whose narrator resides at an institution handling U. S. Mail, a work by Eudora Welty.
ANSWER: “Why I Live at the P.O.”
**One section of this poem marks the arrival of a group who had “hats that were covered in diamond dust” and another group of “cake-walk princes” with “long red coats.” The final section of this poem describes a vision wherein the twelve apostles with “bright white steel they were seated round.” The speaker describes death as “an Elephant / Torch-eyed and horrible” and commands the reader to “listen to the yell of Leopold’s ghost” before describing people with “irrepressible high spirits” dancing the “juba in the gambling hall.” Subtitled “A Study of the Negro Race,” the speaker sees the title entity “CREEPING THROUGH THE BLACK, / CUTTING THROUGH THE JUNGLE WITH A GOLDEN TRACK” and this poem repeatedly warns that “Mumbo-jumbo will hoo-doo you.” For 10 points, identify this poem about a certain African river, written by Vachel Lindsay.
**One character in this work narrates the story of the wreck of the La Bourgogne to persuade her lover to abandon the woman he has impregnated.
The psychoanalyst Dr. Sophroniska attempts to cure one character in this work, while another character is the headmaster of an institution and is named Azais. Towards the end of this work, a letter by Armand’s reveals that one character who had run away with Lady Griffith has turned mad, and that character is (*) Vincent, the brother of the depressed Olivier. Olivier envies Bernard in this work after Bernard becomes a secretary to Uncle Edouard, and the title of Edouard’s journal forms the title of this work. Strouvilhou is the leader of the titular group in this work, and Boris accidentally commits suicide after a ritual to shoot himself with an empty gun to join the titular group goes awry. For 10 points, identify this work whose title refers to the fake-coin producing activities of George Molinier, a work by Andre Gide.
ANSWER: The Counterfeiters [or Les faux-monnayeurs]
*The speaker of this poem wonders “What is it that will last?” after claiming that “all things” will “become / Portions and parcels of the dreadful past,” and earlier, the speaker asks “why are we weigh’d upon with heaviness” and “why should we toil alone.” A stanza wherein the speaker implores to “let what is broken remain” was added to this poem in 1842. That stanza, the sixth in this poem’s “Choric song,” describes characters who found it “sweet” to “dream of the Fatherland, / Of child, and wife, and slave” but to whom “weary seem’d the sea” and “weary the wandering fields of barren foam” after consuming an “enchanted stem, / Laden with flower and fruit” presented by the title characters. For 10 points, identify this poem wherein Odysseus’s shipmates sing “Our island home / Is far beyond the wave; we will no longer roam” after meeting some flower ingesters, a work by Tennyson.
ANSWER: “The Lotos Eaters“
**The end of this play sees the senile Pyotr reject a morsel of food provided by his wife Natalya, though earlier, Pyotr successfully managed the titular enterprise in Dromov. For 10 points each:
 Identify this play whose title describes a factory started by Pyotr’s father Ilya. The workers revolt against Pyotr at the outset of World War I, and Pyotr is disappointed that his sons exhibit little interest in running the factory.
ANSWER: The Artamanov Business [or Delo Artamonovykh]
 The Artamanov Business was written by this author who wrote the short story “Twenty Six Men and One Girl” as well as a play about a dilapidated tenement titled The Lower Depths.
ANSWER: Maxim Gorky
 The title character of this Gorky novel, Pelegaya Nelovna, is inspired by Pavel’s activities for the revolutionary cause, and supports Pavel’s socialist friends such as Vyesovshchikov and Andrey.
*One section of this work sees a reading of its author’s “Parable of the Water-Tank,” while in another chapter, Mr. Barton explains that the motto of civilization continues to be “Eritis sicut Deus.” For 10 points each:
 Name this work whose narrator isn’t really in love with Edith any more, and was published just before its author’s death in 1897. It notably sees men and women organized more homogeneously in the workforce.
 Equality is the sequel to this novel wherein Dr. Julian West remains unconscious for a period of 113 years, and wakes up in a Boston which has overcome the ills of capitalism in the year 2000.
ANSWER: Looking Backward: 1887-2000
 Equality and Looking Backward were written by this American socialist whose other works include Dr. Heidenhoff’s Process and Miss Ludington’s Sister.
ANSWER: Edward Bellamy
**A recent novel by Robert Littel with this title is narrated by characters like Nadezhda, Nikolia Vlasik, and Zaitseva-Antonova. For 10 points each:
 Identify this title also shared by a poem whose title character “forges decrees in a line like horseshoes” and who “rolls the executions on his tongue like berries.” The speaker of that poem also laments “At ten paces you can’t hear our words.”
ANSWER: The Stalin Epigram
 The Stalin Epigram was written by this Acmeist poet who also wrote Voronezh Notebooks as well as the poetry collection Tristia.
ANSWER: Osip Emilyevich Mandelshtam
 Another notable acmeist was this poet, who also narrates a part of Littel’s novel. She described her 17-month long wait for her son’s release from a Leningrad prison in “Requiem” and wrote Poem Without a Hero.
ANSWER: Anna Akhmatova
**An underlying cause for this event was the curse placed by Durvasha after a garland offered by that sage was improperly placed on a deity’s mount and was subsequently discarded. The suspicion raised over Mohini by one figure during this event resulted in the beheading of that figure, whose two parts came to be known as Rahu and Ketu in its aftermath. One story behind Maha-Shiva-Ratri states that the sleepless devotion displayed by Parvati aided in Shiva’s survival after this event, in which Shiva stored the poison released from this event in his throat. Vishnu appeared in the incarnation of Kurma to facilitate this event, which required Mount Mandara to be placed on the tortoise’s back and the serpent Vasuki to be used as a rope in order to extract some valuable amrita, ostensibly from the hadalpelagic zone. For 10 points, identify this event in which a giant hydrological object underwent some vigorous mechanical action by the Asuras and the Devas.
ANSWER: churning of the ocean [or churning of the sea; accept any claims implying that a giant sea of milk was being churned; accept samudra manthan or sagar manthan]
***The autobiographical Bachitar Natak was written by this man in the Braj language, and forms a part of a larger work named for him. Sher Mohammad Khan intervened to prevent the execution of this man’s two sons, who were captured at Sirhind. The Nihangs began as the followers of this man’s younger son, and he authored a set of codes governing the behavior of his followers called the rahit-namas. During his stay at Damdama near Bhatinda, this man also oversaw the formal compilation of the Kartarpur pothi and other hymns, and in October 1708, while at Nanded, he performed his most notable action while in his deathbed. He is better known for initiating several people into the Khalsa order and he also designated the Adi Granth to be his successor. For 10 points, identify this tenth Sikh Guru.
ANSWER: Guru Gobind Singh
**A good brother of this individual had the gift of dying when he pleased and was named Vibhishana, while nastier relatives of his include Shoorpanakha. For 10 points each:
 Identify this demon who had a bunch of immortality granting nectar stored up his navel. He is often identified as being ten-headed.
 Ravana held Sita captive for a few years at Lanka. Sita was the wife of this avatar of Vishnu and brother of Lakshman, who led some big armies to Lanka in order to defeat Ravana.
ANSWER: Ram [or Ramachandra; prompt smart alecs on “Raghu” but accept Raghuram]
 A brother of Ravana was this giant demon who slept continuously for 6 months and woke up for one day, during which he gobbled up food all day.
**This hymn commemorates the Pancha Paramesthis, and it is composed in the Prakrit language. For 10 points each:
 Identify this hymn which begins with salutations to Arihantas, Siddhas, Acharyas, Upadhyayas, and Sadhus in that order.
ANSWER: Namokar mantra [or Namaskar mantra; or Navkar mantra]
 The Namokar mantra is the “great hymn” of this religion, founded by Mahavira, whose adherents are divided into the Digambaras and the Shvetambaras.
 Jains also venerate 24 of these beings who achieved enlightenment. The first of them was Rishabha, and some folks believe that Mallinath was the only one of them to be female.
ANSWER: Tirthankaras [prompt on “ford-makers”]
Fine Arts – 2/0
***One character in this work is Berit, who constantly criticizes her husband’s Catholic background. Along with Marianne, the protagonist of this film visits his aged mother, who shows him a pocket-watch without hands, which also appears to the protagonist in a nightmare at the beginning of this work. Two characters who get into an argument about the existence of God hitch a ride with the protagonist, who is traveling to Lund to receive an honorary degree. The protagonist dreams of a scene where his dead wife is cheating on him while accusing him of being callous and cold-hearted and also recollects his childhood when he sits by a shrub of the title fruit, triggering his memories of his first love, Sara. Bibi Andersson play the two Saras in this film which also saw the last appearance of Victor Sjostrom as an actor. Dr. Ivar Borg, ultimately softens his heart in, for 10 points, what film by Ingmar Bergmann?
ANSWER: Wild Strawberries [or Smultronstället]
***A painting by George Chinnery shows a son of this figure smoking a hookah as a map of the Calcutta coastline can be found in the background. In a painting by Thomas Beach, this figure appears in a black dress standing in a gothic arch as a representation of Melancholy as depicted in Milton’s “Il Penseroso.” George Henry Harlow’s depiction of this figure shows her in white garb, and Gainsborough is said to have exclaimed “there’s no end to your nose” while painting this figure. A notable painting by Romney shows passions (*) expressing “pain, fear, and horror” arranged diagonally, representing her famous role as Lady Macbeth. In another painting depicting her, she appears enraged as she holds a vessel of poison, and holds a dagger in another image as she prominently sits on a throne contemplating Melpomene. For 10 points, identify this 18th Century actress who represents the Tragic Muse in a painting by Joshua Reynolds.
ANSWER: Sarah Siddons
**The Uffizi houses this man’s early works The Trial of Moses and Portrait of Warrior with his Equerry while one of his landscapes depicting Saint Roch in the foreground and St. George on his horse is titled Tramonto. A work painted for his hometown shows Mary holding a baby Jesus standing on a very high wall, forming a triangular composition with St. Francis and St. Nicasius, while another painting shows the titular group standing at the entrance to a dark cave, with one figure staring into the cave, a turbaned figure staring off to the right, and the oldest figure grasping a set of papers. His most famous painting shows a woman breastfeeding her child as a man holding a staff looks on as a storm brews in the background. For 10 points, identify this artist, originally from Castelfranco, who painted The Three Philosophers and The Tempest.
ANSWER: Giorgione del Castelfranco [accept Zorzon from close friends of the dude!]
***Historians note that Alice Roosevelt accompanying a certain diplomatic mission was key to distracting the press from a July 1905 meeting in Tokyo. For 10 points each:
 Identify the agreement that resulted from the meeting, wherein the US recognized Japan’s interests in Korea, signed by the then US Secretary of War and Prime Minister of Japan.
ANSWER: Taft–Katsura agreement
 In the agreement, Count Katsura recognized US hegemony over this island nation, where William Howard Taft had served an earlier term as its Governor General.
 The Japanese were enraged that this Foreign minister of Katsura wasn’t able to negotiate indemnities from the Russian delegations at Portsmouth. Before Jochiro Takahira, this man served as a diplomat to Washington.
ANSWER: Jotaro Komura
***In the good old 1270s and the 1280s, one of these institutions was moved around from Bruges to Aardenburg and back to Bruges, while another one of these trading posts was found at Bergen. For 10 points each:
 Identify these late-medieval and Renaissance era special economic zones, exemplified by the London Steelyard and the one in Novgorod called the Peterhof.
 The kontore were established by this northern European trade union, prominent from the 1200s-1500s. It fought a war with the Netherlands in the 1440s, and it negotiated the Treaty of Copenhagen.
ANSWER: Hanseatic League [or Hansa]
 This group of people, who arose after the Victual brothers were destroyed, continued to harass the Hanseatic league. They were notably led by Klaus Störtebeker and their name means “those who share in equal measure.”